Key Results

What is the Automation Exposure Score?

The Automation Score is a 10-point scale, where occupations with a score of 1 face the least exposure to automation and those with a score of 10 face the most exposure.  The level of exposure is determined by using O*Net data on occupational attributes.  Abilities, work activities, and work contexts that are more cognitive or abstract (requiring attributes such as empathy and creativity) are more difficult to automate, whereas those that are routine or manual are easier to develop automated solutions for.  We rank each occupation based on the mix of a select number of abilities, work activities, and work contexts associated with them, weighted by their importance or time devoted to each.

What Does Automation Exposure Mean?

The Automation Exposure Score is NOT predictive.  A high Automation Exposure Score does not necessarily mean that all workers in an occupation are in imminent danger of having their jobs disappear.  There are a variety of factors that can expedite or hinder adoption of automation technologies, such as:

  • Cost and complexity
  • Public acceptance
  • Policy and regulatory environment
  • Resistance by the incumbent workforce

Additionally, for many occupations, automation will not eliminate jobs but lead to increased productivity, freeing up time that workers can devote to additional tasks, and will require new skills as workers learn to interface with or manage the new automation processes.

Top 10 Most Exposed Occupations

Occupation (O*NET Code) Score
Subway and Streetcar Operators (53-4041.00) 10
Roof Bolters, Mining (47-5043.00) 10
Postal Service Mail Carriers (43-5052.00) 10
Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing (51-7042.00) 10
Fallers (45-4021.00) 10
Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors (53-7081.00) 9
Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders (51-9191.00) 9
Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (51-9124.00) 9
Machine Feeders and Offbearers (53-7063.00) 9
Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (51-6064.00) 9

Employment Weighted Automation Scores

Average Automation Score for Major Occupation Groups
Employment Weighted with Min and Max

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Chart of Employment-Weighted Average Automation Score for Major Occupation Groups with Min Max